An adapted measure of ethical climate in organisations – a South African study

  • Anton Grobler Professor - Unisa Graduate School of Business Leadership
Keywords: Ethical climate, Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ), measurement ethical climate, Victor and Cullen’s ethical climate typology, locus of analysis, ethical criteria, management of ethics.


A study was conducted to analyse the ethical climate typology of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire empirically, in order to develop a unique South African typology. This typology was tested for the equivalence of the construct between the private and public sector. A three ethical climate type solution was found (in contrast with the initial nine, and later five type typology). The results suggest that the construct is equivalent for both the private and public sectors. The findings could be used as a foundation for future studies, as well as for ethical climate measurement within the South African context.

Author Biography

Anton Grobler, Professor - Unisa Graduate School of Business Leadership
Anton Grobler holds a PhD in Industrial Psychology from the North West University (previously - PU for CHE) and a Bachelors, Honours and Master’s degree from the University of Pretoria. Before he joined the Unisa School of Business Leadership where he holds the position of Professor and Area Head: Leadership and Organisational Behaviour, he was employed at the University of South Africa as the Director: Organisation Development and Human Resource Information Systems. Prior to his appointment in Unisa, he was the National Head of Psychological Services (at the rank of Director / Brigadier) in the South African Police Services. He has an extensive academic and institutional research record with numerous publications in accredited peer reviewed academic journals and has delivered papers at various national and international conferences. His current research focuses primarily on the leadership, organisational behaviour, assessment (including instrument design and validation) on individual, group or organisational level and other contemporary HR related research topics such as job search behaviour, specifically employee turnover / retention, etc.


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