Understanding of and attitudes to academic ethics among first‐year university students
AbstractThis study aimed to explore the understanding of and attitudes towards academic ethics of first‐year students at a South African University using a paper‐based survey that yielded 3611 respondents. A degree of confusion and ambivalence regarding academic ethical issues exists. The relative wealth of respondents also appears to influence the understanding of and attitudes to academic ethics. Millennial students have a tendency to disregard ownership of knowledge. There is a need for instruction in academic ethics to instil an awareness of integrity in academic pursuit, coupled with an understanding of the world views of millennials.
Agresti, A. and Finlay, B. (2009). Statistical methods in the social sciences (fourth edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson International Edition.
Aluede, O., Omoregie, E.O. and Osa-Edoh, G.I. (2006). Academic dishonesty as a contemporary problem in higher education: How academic advisors can help. Reading Improvement, 43 (2), 97-106.
Amanullah, M. (2006). Author’s copyright: An Islamic perspective. Journal of World Intellectual Property, 9 (3), 301-315.
Anitsal, I., Anitsal, M.M. and Elmore, R. (2009). Academic dishonesty and intention to cheat: A model of active versus passive academic dishonesty as perceived by business students. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 13 (2), 17-26.
Anson, C.M. (2011). Fraudulent practices: Academic misrepresentations of plagiarism in the name of good pedagogy. Composition Studies, 39 (2), 29-43.
Antion, D.L. and Michael, W.B. (1983). Short-term predictive validity of demographic, affective, personal, and cognitive variables in relation to two criterion measures of cheating behaviors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 43, 467-482.
Arhin, A. and Cormier, E. (2007). Using deconstruction to educate Generation Y nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 46 (12), 562-567.
Ashworth, P. and Bannister, P. (1997). Guilty in whose eyes? University students’ perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in academic work and assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22 (2), 187-204.
Ashworth, P., Freewood, M. and Macdonald, R. (2003). The student lifeworld and the meanings of plagiarism. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 34 (2), 257-278.
Bateman, C.R. and Valentine, S.R. (2010). Investigating the effects of gender on consumers’ moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 95 (3), 393-414.
Becker, C.H. (2009). Student values and research: Are millennials really changing the future of reference and research? Journal of Library Administration, 49 (4), 341-364.
Beckstrom, M., Manuel, J. and Nightingale, J. (2008). The wired utility meets the wired generation. Electric Light and Power. [Online]. Available: from: http://www.elp.com/index/display/articledisplay/342495/ articles/electric-light-power/volume-86/issue-5/news-analysis/ the-wiredutility-meets-the-wired-generation.html [Last accessed on 29 July 2012].
Bell, N.S., Connell, J.A. and McMinn, N.E. (2011). How will the next generation change the business world? A report on a survey. Insights Journal, 1, 45-55.
Belter, R.W. and Du Pré, A. (2009). A strategy to reduce plagiarism in an undergraduate course. Teaching of Psychology, 36 (4), 257-261.
Bisping, T.O., Patron, H. and Roskelley, K. (2008). Modeling academic dishonesty: The role of student perceptions and misconduct type. Journal of Economic Education, 39 (1), 4-21.
Blum, S.D. (2009). My Word! Plagiarism and college culture. London: Cornell University Press.
Boisvert, R.F. and Irwin, M.J. (2006). Plagiarism on the rise. Communications of the ACM, 49 (6), 23-4.
Boyd, D. (2010). Ethical determinants for Generations X and Y. Journal of Business Ethics, 93, 465-69.
Braxton, J.M. and Lee, S.D. (2005). Toward reliable knowledge about college student departure. In Seidman, A. (Ed.), College student retention: Formula for student success. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.
Breen, L. and Maassen, M. (2005). Reducing the incidence of plagiarism in an undergraduate course: The role of education.
Issues in Educational Research, 15 (1), 1-16.
Brimble, M. and Stevenson-Clarke, (2006). Managing academic dishonesty in Australian universities: Implications for teaching, learning and scholarship. Accounting, Accountability and Performance, 12 (1), 32-63.
Brinkworth, R., McCann, B., Matthews, C. and Nordström, K. (2009). First year expectations and experiences: Student and teacher perspectives. Higher Education, 58 (2), 157-73.
Brown, A.S. and Murphy, D.R. (1989). Cryptomnesia: Delineating unconscious plagiarism. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15 (3), 432-42.
Brown, B.S., Weible, R.J. and Omosk, K.E. (2010). Business school deans on student academic honesty: A survey. College Student Journal, 44 (2), 299-308.
Buranen, L. (2009). A safe place: the role of librarians and writing centers in addressing citation practices and plagiarism. Knowledge Quest, 37 (3), 24-33.
Burrus, R.T., McGoldrick, K. and Schuhmann, P.W. (2007). Self‐reports of student cheating: Does a definition of cheating matter? Research in Economic Education, 38 (1), 3-16.
Carroll, J. (2005). Institutional issues in deterring and dealing with student plagiarism. [Online]. Available from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index. cfm?name=pub_plagiarism [Last accessed on 29 July, 2012].
Chapman, K.J. and Lupton, R.A. (2004). Academic dishonesty in a global education market: A comparison of Hong Kong and American University business students. The International Journal of Educational Management, 18 (6/7), 425-35.
Christie, H., Munro, M. and Fisher, T. (2004). Leaving university early: Exploring the differences between continuing and non-continuing students. Studies in Higher Education, 29 (5), 617-34.
Clarke, R. (2006). Plagiarism by academics: More complex than it seems. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 7 (2), 91-121.
Coll, K.M. and Stewart, R.A. (2008). College student retention: Instrument validation and value for partnering between academic and counselling services. College Student Journal, 42 (1), 41-56.
Comas-Forgas, R., Sureda-Negre, J. and Salva-Mut, F. (2010). Academic plagiarism prevalence among Spanish undergraduate students: An exploratory analysis. Biochemica Medica, 20 (3), 301-6.
Crown, D.F. and Spiller, M.S. (1998). Learning from the literature on collegiate cheating: A review of empirical research. Journal of Business Ethics, 17 (6), 683-700.
De Bruin, G.P. and Rudnick, H. (2007). Examining the cheats. The role of conscientiousness and excitement seeking in academic dishonesty. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37 (1), 153-64.
DesJardins, S.L., Dong‐Ok, K. and Rzonca, C.S. (2003). A nested analysis of factors affecting bachelor’s degree completion. Journal of College Student Retention, 4 (4), 407-35.
Devlin, M. and Gray, K. (2007). In their own words: A qualitative study of the reasons Australian university students plagiarize. Higher Education Research and Development, 26 (2), 181-98.
Elander, J., Pittam, G., Lusher, J., Fox, P. and Payne, N. (2010). Evaluation of an intervention to help students avoid unintentional plagiarism by improving their authorial identity. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 35 (2), 157-71.
Ellery, K. (2008). An investigation into electronic‐source plagiarism in a first-year essay assignment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33 (6), 607-17.
Embleton, K. and Helfer, D.S. (2007). The plague of plagiarism and academic dishonesty. Searcher, 15 (6), 23-6.
Fiedler, R.L. and Kaner, C. (2010). Plagiarism detection services: How well do they actually perform? IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, Winter: 29 (4), 37‐43.
Gbadamosi, G. (2004). Academic ethics: What has morality, culture and administration got to do with its measurement? Management Decision, 42 (9), 1145-61.
Ghaffari, M. (2008). Instant gratification and culture of academic dishonesty: Implications of trinity paradigm of intelligence in developing a culture of integrity. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 3 (3), 89-102.
Gotterbarn, D., Miller, K. and Impagliazzo, J. (2006). Plagiarism and scholarly publications: An ethical analysis. Paper presented at the 36th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, October, 28-31 San Diego, California. Session M1H: 1‐6.
Gravetter, F.J. and Forzano, L.B. (2003). Research methods for the behavioral sciences. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
Grimes, P. (2004). Dishonesty in academics and business: A cross-cultural evaluation of student attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 49 (3), 273-90.
Giudici, P. and Figini, S. (2009). Applied data mining for business and industry. (Second ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Gross, E.R. (2011). Clashing values: Contemporary views about cheating and plagiarism compared to traditional beliefs and practices. Education, 123 (2), 435-40.
Gullifer, J. and Tyson, G.A. (2010). Exploring university students’ perceptions of plagiarism: A focus group study. Studies in Higher Education, 35 (4), 463-81.
Hansen, B., Stith, D. and Tesdell, L.S. (2011). Plagiarism: What’s the big deal? Business Communication Quarterly, 74 (2), 188-91.
Happel, S.K. and Jennings, M.M. (2008). An economic analysis of academic dishonesty and its deterrence in higher education. Journal of Legal Studies Education, 25 (2), 183-214.
Hard, S.G., Conway, J.M. and Moran, A.C. (2006). Faculty and college student beliefs about the frequency of student academic misconduct. The Journal of Higher Education, 77 (6), 1059-80.
Hartman, J. and McCambridge, J. (2011). Optimizing millennials’ communication styles. Business Communication Quarterly, 74 (1), 22-44.
Hinkle, D.E., Wiersema, W. and Jurs, S.G. (1988). Applied statistics for the behavioural sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Honig, B. and Bedi, A. (2012). The fox in the hen house: A critical examination of plagiarism among members of the Academy of Management. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 11 (1), 101-23.
Howard, R. M and Davies L.J. (2009). Plagiarism in the Internet age. Educational Leadership, 66 (6), 64-7.
Hughes, J.M.C. and McCabe, D.L. (2006). Understanding academic misconduct. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 36 (1), 49-63.
Hunter, M.S. (2006). Lessons learned: Achieving institutional change in support of students in transition. New Directions for Student Services, Summer (114), 7-15.
Hutton, P.A. (2006). Understanding student cheating and what educators can do about it. College Teaching, 54 (1), 171-76.
Inglehart, R.F. (2008). Changing values among Western publics from 1970 to 2006. Western European Politics, 31, 130-46.
Jones, D.L.R. (2011). Academic dishonesty: Are more students cheating? Business Communication Quarterly, 74 (2), 141-50.
Keohane, N.O. (1999). The fundamental values of academic integrity. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University, The Center for Academic Integrity.
Kerslake, P. (2009). How the product is shaped by the container: A learning ideology. Studies in Learning, Evaluation, Innovation and Development, 6 (2), 42-53.
Kidwell, L.A. and Kent, J. (2008). Integrity at a distance: A study of academic misconduct among university students on and off campus. Accounting Education: An International Journal, 17 (Supplement), S3-S16.
Kincaid, J.R. (1997). Poisoned letters. New Yorker, 20 January, 93-7.
Kisamore, J.L., Stone, T.H. and Jawahar, I.M. (2007). Academic integrity: The relationship between individual and situational factors on misconduct contemplations. Journal of Business Ethics, 75 (4), 381-94.
Lanier, M.M. (2006). Academic integrity and distance learning Journal of Criminal Justice Learning, 17 (2), 244-61.
Lawson, R. (2004). Is classroom cheating related to business students’ propensity to cheat in the real world? Journal of Business Ethics, 49 (2), 189-99.
Leask, B. (2006). Plagiarism, cultural diversity and metaphor: Implications for academic staff development. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 31 (2), 183-99.
Lee, D.E. (2009). Cheating in the classroom: Beyond policing. The Clearing House, 82 (4), 171-74.
Levy, E.S. and Rakovski, C.C. (2006). Academic dishonesty: A zero tolerance professor and student registration choices. Research in Higher Education, 47 (6), 735-54.
Lin, C‐H.S. and Wen, L‐Y.M. (2007). Academic dishonesty in higher education: A nationwide study in Taiwan. Higher Education, 54, 85‐97.
Lippincott, J.K. (2010). Information commons: Meeting millennials’ needs. Journal of Library Administration, 50, 27-37.
Liu, D. (2005). Plagiarism in ESOL students: Is cultural conditioning truly the major culprit?. ELT Journal, 59 (3), 234-41.
Mahmood, S.T., Mahmood, A., Khan, M.N. and Malik, A.B. (2010). Intellectual property rights: Conceptual awareness of research students about plagiarism. International Journal of Academic Research, 2 (6), 193-98.
Marsden, H., Carroll, M. and Neill, J.T. (2005). Who cheats at a university? A self-report study of dishonest academic behaviours in a sample of Australian university students. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57 (1), 1-10.
Martin, D.E., Rao, A. and Sloan, L.R. (2009). Plagiarism, integrity and workplace deviance: A criterion study. Ethics and Behavior, 19 (1), 36-50.
McAlister, A. (2009). Teaching the millennial generation. American Music Teacher. August/September, 13-5.
McCabe, D.L. (2005a). Cheating among college and university students: A North American perspective. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 1 (1), 10-1.
McCabe, D.L. (2005b). It takes a village: Academic dishonesty and educational opportunity. Liberal Education, 91 (3), 26-31.
McCabe, D.J. and Trevinˇo, L.K. (1993). Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual factors. Journal of Higher Education, 64 (5), 522-38.
McCabe, D.J. and Trevinˇo, L.K. (1997). Individual and contextual influences on academic honesty: A multicampus investigation. Research in Higher Education, 38 (3), 379-96.
McCabe, D.J., Trevinˇo, L.K. and Butterfield, K.D. (2001). Cheating in academic institutions: A decade of research. Ethics and Behavior, 11 (3), 219-32.
McClellan, S.K. (2009). ‘Externships for millennial generation law students: Bridging the generation gap. Clinical Law Review, 15 (2), 255-81.
McKendall, M., Klein, H., Levenburg, N. and de la Rosa, D. (2010). College student cheating and perceived instructor fairness. Journal of the Academy of Business Education, Fall (2), 14-32.
McWilliams, V. and Nahavandi, A. (2006). Using live cases to teach ethics.
Journal of Business Ethics, 67 (4), 421-33.
Miller, A., Shoptaugh, C. and Parkerson, A. (2008). Under-reporting of cheating in research using volunteer college students. College Student Journal, 42 (2), 326-39.
Miller, A., Shoptaugh, C. and Wooldridge, J. (2011). Reasons not to cheat: Academic-Integrity Responsibility and frequency of cheating. Journal of Experimental Education, 79 (2), 169-84.
Moore‐Howard, R. and Davies, L.J. (2009). Plagiarism in the Internet age. Educational Leadership, 66 (6), 64-7.
Mutula, S.M. (2011). Ethics and trust in digital scholarship. The Electronic Library, 29 (2), 261-76.
Nealy, C. (2011). Rethinking plagiarism. Business Communication Quarterly, 74 (2), 205-9.
Nejati, M., Ismail, S. and Shafaei, A. (2011). Students’ unethical behaviour: Insights from an African country. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 3 (3-4), 276-95.
Ng, E.S.W., Schweitzer, L. and Lyons, S.T. (2010). New generation, great expectations: A field study of the millennial generation. Journal of Business Psychology, 25 (2), 281-92.
Palmer, P. and Zajonc, A. (2010). The heart of higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass.
Park, C. 2003. In other (people’s) words: Plagiarism by university students – literature and lessons. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 28 (5), 471-88.
Pennycook, A. (1996). Borrowing others’ words: Text, ownership, memory, and plagiarism. TESOL Quarterly, 30 (2), 201-30.
Perfect, T.J. and Stark, L.J. (2012). Unconscious plagiarism recall: Attribution to the self, but not for self-relevant reasons. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 8 (2), 275-83.
Pittam, G., Elander, J., Lusher, J., Fox, P. and Payne, N. (2009). Student beliefs and attitudes about authorial identity in academic writing. Studies in Higher Education, 34 (2), 153-70.
Power, L.G. (2009). University students’ perceptions of plagiarism. The Journal of Higher Education, 80 (6), 643-62.
Rantz, R. (2002). Leading urban institutions of higher education in the new millennium. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 23 (8), 456-66.
Rettinger, D. and Jordan, A. (2005). The relations among religion, motivation, and college cheating: A natural experiment. Ethics and Behavior, 15 (2), 107-29.
Schmelkin, L.P., Gilbert, K., Spencer, K.J., Pincus, H.S. and Silva, R. (2008). A multidimensional scaling of college students’ perceptions of academic dishonesty. The Journal of Higher Education, 79 (5), 587-607.
Scollon, R. (1995). Plagiarism and ideology: Identity in intercultural discourse. Language in Society, 24 (1), 1-28.
Selwyn, N. (2008). Not necessarily a bad thing: A study of online plagiarism amongst undergraduate students. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33 (5), 465-79.
Smith, J.W. and Clark, G. (2010). New games, different rules: Millennials are in town. Journal of Diversity Management, 5 (3), 1-11.
Smyth, L.S. and Davis, J.R. (2004). Perceptions of dishonesty among two‐year college students: Academic versus business situations. Journal of Business Ethics, 51 (1), 62-73.
Staats, S., Hupp, J.M., Wallace, H. and Gresley, J. (2009). Heroes don’t cheat: An examination of academic dishonesty and students’ views on why professors don’t report cheating. Ethics and Behavior, 19 (3), 171-83.
Sutherland‐Smith, W. (2005). Pandora’s box: Academic perceptions of student plagiarism in writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4 (1), 83-95.
Trost, K. (2009). Psst, have you ever cheated? A study of academic dishonesty in Sweden. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 34 (4), 367-76.
Tyler, K. (2007). The tethered generation. HR Magazine, May, 41-6.
Whitley, B.E. (1998). Factors associated with cheating among college students. Research in Higher Education, 39 (3), 235-74.
Whitley, B.E. (2001). Gender differences in affective responses to having cheated: The mediating role of attitudes. Ethics and Behavior, 11 (3), 249-59.
Whitley, B.E., Nelson, A.B. and Jones, C.J. (1999). Gender differences in cheating attitudes and classroom cheating behavior: A meta‐analysis. Sex Roles, 41 (9), 657-80.
Williams, A.E. and Janosik, S.M. (2007). An examination of academic dishonesty among sorority and non-sorority women. Journal of College Student Development, 48 (6), 706-14.
Woessner, M.C. (2004). Beating the house: How inadequate penalties for cheating make plagiarism an excellent gamble. Political Science and Politics, 37 (2), 313-20.
Yardley, J., Rodríguez, M.D., Bates, S.C. and Nelson, J. (2009). True confessions? Alumni’s retrospective reports on undergraduate cheating behaviors. Ethics and Behavior, 19 (1), 1-14.
Zwagerman, S. (2008). The Scarlet P: Plagiarism, panopticism, and the rhetoric of academic integrity. College Composition and Communication, 59 (4), 676-710.
This journal is an open access journal, and the authors and journal should be properly acknowledged, when works are cited.
Authors may use the publisher's version for teaching purposes, in books, theses, dissertations, conferences and conference papers.
A copy of the authors’ publisher's version may also be hosted on the following websites:
- Non-commercial personal homepage or blog.
- Institutional webpage.
- Authors Institutional Repository.
The following notice should accompany such a posting on the website: “This is an electronic version of an article published in AJOBE, Volume XXX, number XXX, pages XXX–XXX”, DOI. Authors should also supply a hyperlink to the original paper or indicate where the original paper (http://ajobe.journals.ac.za/pub) may be found.
Authors publisher's version, affiliated with the Stellenbosch University will be automatically deposited in the University’s’ Institutional Repository SUNScholar.
The following license applies:
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.