A typology for the categorisation of ethical leadership research

Charlotte Pietersen

Abstract


The paper introduces an expanded typology of research approaches applicable to the field of ethical leadership, namely: theoretical-integrative, systematic-analytical,  narrative-interpretive, and action-advocacy. An illustrative review identified clear examples of this framework for categorising types of research on ethical leadership. It is concluded that the investigation shows the applicability of a more nuanced perspective on research in the field of ethical leadership. The analysis provides support for the use of the typology beyond the customary quantitative and qualitative dichotomy.


Keywords


multi-paradigm, leadership ethics, fundamental knowledge types, quantitative-qualitative dichotomy, conceptual analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abrhiem, T. H. 2012. Ethical leadership: keeping values in business cultures. Business and Management Review, 2(7): 11-19. http://www.businessjournalz.org.bmr

[accessed 12 November 2016].

Adobor, H. 2006. Exploring the role performance of corporate ethics officers. Journal of Business Ethics, 69,57–75. DOI 10.1007/s10551-006-9068-7

Allwood, C. M. 2012. The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research methods is problematic. Qualitative Quantitative, 46: 1417-1429. DOI 10.1007/s11135-011-9455-8

Alvesson, M. 1996. Leadership studies: From procedure and abstraction to reflexivity and reflection. Leadership Quarterly, 7(4): 455-485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(96)90002-8 [accessed 9 December 2016].

Avey, J. B., Wernsing, T. S. & Palanski, M. E. 2012. Exploring the process of ethical leadership: the mediating role of employee voice and psychological ownership. Journal of Business Ethics, 107: 21-34. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-021-1298-2

Beeri, I., Dayan, R., Vigoda-Gadot, E. & Werner, S. B. 2013. Advancing ethics in public organizations: The impact of an ethics program on employees’ perceptions and behaviors in a regional council. Journal of Business Ethics, 112: 59-78. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-012-1232-7

Bishara, N. D. & Schipani, C. A. 2009. Strengthening the ties that bind: Preventing corruption in the executive suite. Journal of Business Ethics, 88: 765-780. Doi:10.1007/s10551-009

Bless, C. & Higson-Smith, C. 2013. Fundamentals in social research methods: An African perspective. Kenwyn: Juta.

Boshoff, E., Kotzé, M. & Nel, P. 2014. The development and initial validation of the work convictions questionnaire (WCQ) to measure approaches to ethical decision making in the workplace: Part 2. African Journal of Business Ethics, 8 (2): 15‑30.

Brewster, C., Carey, L., Grobler, P., Holland, P. & Warnich, S. 2008. Contemporary issues in Human Resource Management: Gaining a competitive advantage. Cape Town: Oxford.

Brown, M. E. & Treviño, L. K. 2006. Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17:595-616. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.10.004

Brown, M. E., Trevino, L. K. & Harrison, D. A. 2005. Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and HumanDecision Processes, 97(2): 117-134. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.03.002

Bryman, A. 2004. Qualitative research on leadership: A critical but appreciative review. The Leadership Quarterly, 15: 729-769. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2004.09.007

Bryman, A. & Bell, E. 2015. Business research methods. UK: Oxford University Press.

Caldwell, C., Hayes, L. A. & Long, D. T. 2010. Leadership, trustworthiness, and ethical stewardship. Journal of Business Ethics, 96:497-512. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-010-0489-y

Chikeleze, M. C. 2014. Validation of the Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (ELSQ) Doctoral Dissertation, Benedictine University, US. http://cvdl.ben.edu/home23/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Chikeleze-ready-to-upload-dissertation.pdf [accessed 12 December 2016].

Ciulla, J. B. 1995. Leadership ethics: Mapping the territory. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5 (1): 5-28.DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3857269

Ciulla, J. B. 2005. The state of leadership ethics and the work that lies before us. Business Ethics, 14(4): 323-335. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8608.2005.00414.x

Copeland, M. K. 2014. The emerging significance of values based leadership: A literature review. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 8(2): 105-135. http://works.bepress.com/marykaycopeland/1/ [accessed 7 January 2017].

Darcy, K. T. 2010. Ethical Leadership: The past, present and future. International Journal of Disclosure & Governance, 7(3): 198-212. DOI: 10.1057/jdg.2010.12

De Hoogh, A. H. B. & D. N. Den Hartog. 2008. Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader's social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates' optimism: A multi-method study. Leadership Quarterly, 19(3): 297-311. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.03.002

Eisenbeiß, S. A. & Giessner, S. R. 2012. The emergence and maintenance of ethical leadership in organizations: A question of embeddedness? Journal of Personnel Psychology, 11(1):7-19. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.03.002

Ekaningtias, D. 2016. Effect of commitment, ethical leadership and attitude towards the performance of regional work unit in East Java Provincial Government. Human Resource Management Research, 6(2): 40-44. DOI: 10.5923/j.hrmr.20160602.02

Elo, S, Kääriäinen. M, Kanste, O., Pölkki, T. & Kyngäs, H. 2014. Qualitative content analysis: A focus on trustworthiness. Sage Open, January-March: 1-10. DOI: 10.1177/2158244014522633

Enderle, G. 1987. Some perspectives of managerial ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 6: 657-663. DOI: 10.1007/BF0070578

Fusch, P. I. & Ness, L. R. 2015. Are we there yet? Data saturation in qualitative research, The Qualitative Report, 20(9): 1408-1416. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR20/9/fusch1.pdf [accessed 15 November 2016].

Ghahroodi, H. K., Ghazali, M. Z. M. & Ghorban, Z. S. 2013. Examining ethical leadership and its impacts on the followers’ behavioral outcomes. Asian Social Science, 9(3): 91-96. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n3p91

Halisa, M., Akovab, O. &Tagrafc, H. 2007. The relationship between ethics and quality: Conflicts and common ground. Serbian Journal of Management, 2 (2): 127-145.

Hannah, D. R. & Zatzick, C. D. 2007. An examination of leader portrayals in the US business press following the landmark scandals of the early 21th century. Journal of Business Ethics, 79: 361-377. DOI 10.1007/s10551-007-9406-4

Hansen, S. D. 2011. Ethical leadership: A multifoci social exchange perspective. The Journal of Business Inquiry,10(1): 41-55. http:www.uvu.edu/woodbury/jbi/articles [accessed 22 January 2017].

Heres, K. & Lasthuizen, K. 2012. What’s the difference? Ethical leadership in public, hybrid and private sector organizations. Journal of Change Management, 12(4): 441-466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14697017.2012.728768 [accessed 15 January 2017].

Hodgson, M. N. S., Green, M. T. & Kodatt, S. 2012. Scandal vs. suggestion: A content analysis of leadership ethics in scholarly publications versus popular newspapers and magazines. Proceedings of ASBSS Conference, Las Vegas,19(1): 421-432. http://search.proquest.com/openview/63a56189863a29b16f5c3aaf250b03b3/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2030636[accessed 18 January 2017].

Janićijević, N. 2011. Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture. Economic Annals, LVI(189): 69-99. doi:10.2298/EKA1189069J

Jones, H. B. 1995. The ethical leader: An ascetic construct. Journal of Business Ethics, 14: 867-874. doi:10.1007/BF00872353

Jones, K. B. 2015. Ethical insights of early 21st century corporate leaders. Doctoral thesis, Walden University, USA. http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/view content.cgi?article=1412&context=dissertations [accessed 18 January 2017].

Kacmar, K. M., Andrews., M. C. Harris, K. J. & Tepper, B. J. 2013. Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediating role of organizational politics and the moderating role of political skill. Journal of Business Ethics, 115:33-44. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-012-1373-8

Kalshoven, K., Den Hartog, D. N. & De Hoogh, A. H. B. 2011a. Ethical leadership at work questionnaire (ELW): Development and validation of a multidimensional measure. The Leadership Quarterly, 22: 51-69. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.12.007

Kalshoven, K., Den Hartog, N. & De Hoogh, A. H. B. 2011b. Ethical Leader Behavior and Big Five Factors of Personality. Journal of Business Ethics, 100:349-366. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-010-0685-9

Kasthuri, H. 2009. Leading with your soul. Strategic Finance, February: 41-51. http://sfmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/sfarchive/2009/02/Leading-with-Your-Soul.pdf [accessed 18 December 2016].

Knights, D. & O’Leary, M. 2006. Leadership, ethics and responsibility to the other. Journal of Business Ethics, 67:125-137. DOI 10.1007/s10551-006-9008-6

Koning, J. & Waistell, J. 2012. Identity talk of aspirational ethical leaders. Journal of Business Ethics, 107: 65-77. DOI: 10.1007/s1-551-012-1297-

Köse, T. & Köse, S. D. 2016. The effect of ethical leadership on perceived organizational identification: The mediating role of ethical climate. The International Journal of Business & Management, 4(1): 368-374. http:/www.theijbm.com [accessed 18 December 2016].

Lawton, A. & Pảez, I. 2015. Developing a framework for ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 13: 639-649. DOI:10.1007/s10551-014-2244-2

Marsh, C. 2013. Business executives’ perceptions of ethical leadership and its development. Journal of Business Ethics, 114: 565-582. DOI. 10.1007/s10551-012-1366-7

Mayer, D. M., Kuenzi, M. & Greenbaum, R. L. 2010. Examining the link between ethical leadership and employee misconduct: The mediating role of ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 95 (Suppl 1): 7-16. DOI 10.1007/s10551-011-0794-0

Mayer, D. M., Aquino, K., Greenbaum, R. L. & Kuenzi, M. 2012. Who displays ethical leadership, and why does it matter? An examination of antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1): 151-171.http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amj.2008.0276 [accessed 17 December 2016].

Mihelič, K. K., Lipičnik, B. & Tekavčič, M. 2010. Ethical leadership. International Journal of Management & Information Systems, 14 (5): 31-42. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19030/ijmis.v14i5.11

Monahan, K. 2012. A review of literature conserving ethical leadership in organizations. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 5(1): 56-66. ISSN 1941-4684 / editorelj@regent.edu [accessed 17 December 2016].

Moreno, C. M. 2010. An approach to ethical communication from the point of view of management responsibilities: The importance of communication in organizations. Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 98-108. http://www.raco.cat/index.php/rljae/article/view/270549/358113 [accessed 15 December 2016].

Murphy, P. E. & Enderle, G. 1995. Managerial ethical leadership: examples do matter. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(1): 118-129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3857275

Northouse, P. G. 2010. Leadership: Theory and practice (5th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ncube, L. B. & Wasburn, M. H. 2006. Strategic collaboration for ethical leadership: A mentoring framework for business and organizational decision making. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13(1): 78-91. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/10717919070130011001 [accessed 15 December 2016].

Obicci, P. A. 2015. Effects of ethical leadership on employee performance in Uganda. Net Journal of Business Management, 3(1): 1-12. http://www.netjournals.org/pdf/NJBM/2015/1/14-024.pdf [accessed 15 December 2016].

Öktema, S. 2013. The effect of the ethical leadership on perceived organizational justice and organizational identification of the employees: The case of tourism businesses. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 1/3: 10-21.

Onorato, M. 2013. An empirical study of unethical leadership and workplace bullying in industry segments. SAM Advanced Management Journal, Spring: 4-16. https://www.thefreelibrary.com/An+empirical+study+of+unethical+leadership+and+workplace+bullying+in...-a0338323914 [accessed 15 December 2016].

Palmer, D. E. 2009. Business leadership: three levels of ethical analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 88: 525-536. DOI.10.1007/s10551-009-0117-x

Palmer, N. 2013. The effects of leader behavior and follower ethical behavior: Examining the mediating roles of ethical efficacy and moral disengagement. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=businessdiss [accessed 15 December 2016].

Parry, K., Mumford, D. M., Bower, I. & Watts, L. L. 2014. Qualitative and historiometric methods in leadership research: a review of the first 25 years of The Leadership Quarterly. The Leadership Quarterly, 25: 132-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.leaqua.2013.11.006 [accessed 7 January 2017].

Pelletier, K. L. & Bligh, M. C. 2008. The aftermath of organizational corruption: employee attributions and emotional reactions. Journal of Business Ethics, 80: 823-844. DOI 10.1007/s10551-007-9471-8

Pietersen, C. 2016. Research trends in the South African Journal of Human Resource Management: 2003-2012. Paper presented at the SIOPSA Conference, Pretoria, South Africa. http://www.siopsa.org.za [accessed 15 January 2017].

Pietersen, C. 2017. Organizational culture: A foundational perspective. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 18(3): 262-273. https://doi.org/10.1108/AJEMS-06-2016-0085

Pietersen, H. J. 2005. Knowledge development in industrial/organizational psychology (South Africa). South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(2): 78-85. doi: 10.4102/sajip.v31i2.194

Pietersen, H. J. 2016. The parting of the ways: Foundational orientations in human thought. KR Publishing: South Africa.

Plinio, A. J. 2009. Ethics and leadership. International Journal of Disclosure and Governance, 6(4): 277-283. http://0search.ebscohost.com.library.regent.edu/

ogin.aspx?direct=true&db=a9 h&AN=44824168&site=ehost-live [accessed 15 January 2017].

Plinio, A. J., Young, J. M. & Lavery, L. M. 2010. The state of ethics in our society: A clear call for action. International Journal of Disclosure & Governance, 7(3): 172-197. doi:10.1057/jdg.2010.11

Proios, M., Athanailidis, I. & Arvanitidou, V. 2009. Ethical climate in sports teams. Sports Management International Journal, 5(1): 19-38.

Racelis, A. D. 2010. Relationship between employee perceptions of corporate ethics and organizational culture: An exploratory study. Asia Pacific Management Review, 15(2): 251-260.

Resick, C. J., Hanges, P. J., Dickson, M. W. & Mitchelson, J. K. 2006. A cross-cultural examination of the endorsement of ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 63: 345-359. DOI: 10/1007/s10551-005-3242-1

Resick, C. J., Martin, G. S., Keating, M. A., Dickson, M. W., Kwan, H. K. & Peng, C. 2011. What ethical leadership means to me: Asian, American, and European perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 101: 435-457. DOI.10.1007/s10551-010-0730-8

Robson, C. 2011. Real world research. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ruiz-Palomino, P., Saez-Martınez, F. J. & Martınez-Canas, R. 2013. Understanding pay satisfaction: Effects of supervisor ethical leadership on job motivating potential influence. Journal of Business Ethics, 118: 31-43. DOI 10.1007/s10551-012-1549-2

Schoeman, C. 2104. Ethics can: Managing workplace ethics: Knowles: Randburg.

Selart, M. & Johansen, S. T. 2011. Ethical decision making in organizations: The role of leadership stress. Journal of Business Ethics, 99: 129-143. DOI 10.1007/s10551-010-0649-0

Shin, Y. 2012. CEO ethical leadership, ethical climate, climate strength, and collective organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 108: 299-312. DOI 10.1007/s10551-011-1091-7

Smit, A. 2013. Responsible leadership development through management education: A business ethics perspective. African Journal of Business Ethics, 7(2):3-9.

Stentz J. E., Clark, V. L. P. & Matkin, G. S. 2012. Applying mixed methods to leadership research: A review of current practices. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(6); 1173-1183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.10.001 [accessed 15 January 2017].

Takala, T. 2012. Essays of business and leadership ethics. University of Turka: Finland. http://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/77018/AnnalesB348

TakalaDISS.pdf [accessed 12 February 2017]

Theiri, S. 2013. Relationship between ethical leadership and value creation. Journal of Economics and International Finances, 5(5): 212-217.

Van Wart, M. 2014. Contemporary varieties of ethical leadership in organizations. International Journal of Business Administration, 5(5): 27-45. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5430/ijba.v5n5p27

Vogel, L. R. 2012. Leading with hearts and minds: Ethical orientations of educational leadership doctoral students. Values and Ethics in Educational Administration, 10(1): 1-12.

Webley, S. & Werner, A. 2008. Corporate codes of ethics: Necessary but not sufficient. Business Ethics: A European Review, 17(4): 405-415. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8608.2008.00543.x

Yang, C., Ding, C. G., & Lo, K. W. 2016. Ethical leadership and multidimensional organizational citizenship behaviors: The mediating effects of self-efficacy, respect, and leader–member exchange. Group and Organization Management, 41(3): 343 –374.

Yates, L. A. 2014. Exploring the relationship of ethical leadership with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 7(1): 1-15. http://scholar.valpo.edu/ jvbl/vol7/ iss1/4 [accessed 12 February 2017]

Yukl, G. 2006. Leadership in organizations. Pearson Prentice Hall: New Jersey.

Yukl, G., Mahsud, R., Hassan, S. & Prussia, G. E. 2013. An improved measure of ethical leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20(1): 38-48. DOI: 10.1177/1548051811429352

Zain-Ul-Aabdeen, Khan, M., Khan, H. G. M., Farooq, H. Q., Salman, M. & Ruzwan, M. 2016. The impact of ethical leadership, leadership effectiveness, work related stress and turnover intention on the organizational commitment. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 2(2): 7-14. htpp://www.aisience.org/journal/ijeba [accessed 10 February 2017]

Zhu, W. 2008. The effect of leadership on follower moral identity: The mediating role of psychological empowerment. Leadership Review, 8: 62-73.

Zhu, W., May, D. R. & Avolio, B. J. 2004. The impact of ethical leadership behavior on employee outcomes: The roles of psychological empowerment and authenticity. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11(1): 17-26. journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/1-/1177/10717919040110 [accessed 10 February 2017]




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15249/12-2-153

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



ISSN 0976-3600 (on-line) ; ISSN 1817-7417 (print)


Powered by OJS and hosted by Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service since 2014.


Disclaimer:

This journal is hosted by the SU LIS on request of the journal owner/editor. The SU LIS takes no responsibility for the content published within this journal, and disclaim all liability arising out of the use of or inability to use the information contained herein. We assume no responsibility, and shall not be liable for any breaches of agreement with other publishers/hosts.

SUNJournals Help